Italian Journal of Food Science

 

VOLUME XXV (2013) Nr. 3


PAPERS


CFD Simulations as a Supporting Tool for Process and Construction Optimization in Food Industry Production Practice:
A Case Study of a Single Truck Smoking Chamber

M.S. Kubiak and M. Jakubowski

This paper presents an overall description of one of many numerical modeling methods (Computational Fluid Dynamics) as a tool supporting the optimization of an existing technological process in relation to changes in the parameters of individual operations, as well as the guidelines for constructional changes in the machines and devices used in these operations. The method is presented on the basis of a case study of basic smoking in a single truck smoking chamber. The modeled problem is the flow of an air and smoke mixture in an electric single truck smoking chamber. Results were obtained in the form of spatial distributions of mixture velocity and the movement tracks of smoke particles. These results enabled an analysis of the uniformity of the mixture flow inside the chamber taking into consideration the spaces where “dead zones” occur.


3: 251

Evaluation of Different Stunning Methods on Aspects of Animal Welfare and Meat Quality of Matrinxã (Brycon cephalus)

S.C. Vargas, P.R.C. Oliveira Filho, M.M. Natori, C.G. Lima and E.M. Macedo Viegas

Three methods of stunning fish (electronarcosis, CO2 narcosis, and thermal shock) were compared to study their influence on welfare and meat quality of matrinxã (Brycon cephalus). Parameters such as water quality and the time to reach clinical indicators of unconsciousness were observed. Rigor mortis index and muscular shrinkage were evaluated 3 and 5 h after stunning and at 1, 4, 7, 12 and 18 days of storage. None of the methods extended shelf-life; however, electronarcosis provided faster clinical indicators of unconsciousness and did not cause loss of meat quality.


3: 255

Employing Artificial Neural Networks and Regression in Analysis on Knowledge about Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) in Slovenia

N. Kunstelj, D. Žnidarčič and B. Ster

This article analyses factors affecting the reputation of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) among people in Slovenia. The inquiry, which included 7 general questions and 19 questions in particular about sweet potato, was completed by 712 respondents. The aim was to find out which factors impact the knowledge about sweet potato, the relations between answers to various questions regarding sweet potato features and willingness of people to know, to buy and to grow it. The methods applied were the Radial basis function neural networks and multiple linear and logistic regressions. It was established that persons with agricultural education are experts and know sweet potato best. Persons from large families are also familiar with it, but to a smaller degree. The answers to 8 questions about sweet potato features were very consistent, since we found out that every answer can be predicted with 98% probability (on the basis of the answers to the other 7 questions). Significant covariates in regression show that the most likely persons to know/buy/ grow sweet potato are the people with agricultural education. Older persons are more interested in curative features of sweet potato, while younger and better educated believe in stronger nutritional values. Female respondents are more likely to grow sweet potato than men. Net income also influences willingness to buy sweet potato, because people living with children are more likely to be willing to attend free lectures about sweet potato.


3: 263

Honey-Based “Água-Mel” Chemical Characterization and Microbiological Quality

M. Graça Miguel, M. Dulce Antunes, Smail Aazza, Joana Duarte and M. Leonor Faleiro

In Mediterranean countries such as Italy and Portugal an ancient practice among beekepers is the production of a honey-based product that is called “água-mel” (Portuguese designation) or “abbamele” (Italian designation) that have not only food applications but also medicinal purposes. However, the characterization of such foodstuff is completely absent in Portugal. In our study the main goal was to provide the general chemical characterization and the microbiological quality of samples of “água-mel”. The chemical characterization showed a great variability of the ash percentage (0.167-0.474); electrical conductivity (407-1067 mS/cm); free acidity (33.2-91.2 meq/kg); lactone acidity (14.60-20.50 meq/kg); total acidity (53.7-122.72 meq/kg); glucose (185.57-258.52 g/kg); fructose (218.49-315.36 g/kg); total polyphenols (1780.0-4963.8 mg/kg); flavonoids (188.8- 1702.4 mg/kg) and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (HMF) (1812.6-8428.9 mg/kg), depending on the beekeeper and production year. The microbiological quality included the counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and moulds, Enterobacteriaceae, sulphite-reducing Clostridium spp. and the presence of Salmonella spp. The results showed that from all “água-mel” samples analyzed only one sample was contaminated with Clostridium spp. and aerobic mesophilic bacteria. Taken together both chemical and microbiological data indicates a safe consumption of “água-mel”.


3: 275

Maize Variants’ Susceptibility to Plodia Interpunctella

L. Limonta, D.P. Locatelli, S. Sangiorgio and G. Consonni

The behavior of the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella on maize genotypes differing in embryo development, both on whole and longitudinally sectioned kernels, was studied. In the test with whole kernels, damage was very low or absent, and only viviparous mutants were significantly attacked. However, 100% damage was observed in all genotypes on longitudinally sectioned kernels. In this test, mutant seeds lacking embryos were less damaged and showed the lowest mean number of adult insects. These results indicate that larval penetration is influenced by the embryo properties and first shows that the employment of genetic variants is a valuable approach to study insect behavior and an opportunity to highlight maize genotypes with characteristics that can minimize quality reduction caused by insect attacks.


3: 283

The Hedonic Price for an Italian Grape Variety

F. Caracciolo, L. Cembalo and E. Pomarici

Consumers face complex choices when buying wine, a highly differentiated product sold at widely varying prices. This paper aims to provide a monetary valuation of some key credence attributes of wine, such as certifications and quality ratings made by expert tasters. The implicit price of DOC-DOCG certification is of extreme importance. It gives access to a collective reputation and enables a premium price to be captured from consumers. With this in mind, hedonic price estimation was performed on a specific Italian grape variety (Aglianico).


3: 289

Compositional Studies of Some Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Seed Cultivars Commonly Consumed in Pakistan

M. Zia-Ul-Haq, S. Ahmad, R. Amarowicz and S. Ercisli

The present study was aimed at evaluating the composition and nutrition of some commonly consumed pea cultivars. The investigated parameters included proximate composition, vitamin contents, antinutritional factors (ANF), fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, amino acid and mineral contents. Variability was observed among investigated cultivars in terms of amino acid and sugar contents. Despite variations among sugar contents, sucrose and raffinose were noted as being present in highest and lowest concentrations, respectively, in all cultivars. The distribution patterns of various amino acids in these cultivars suggested sulphur-containing amino acids as limiting amino acids. Analysis showed almost similar proportions of biochemical constituents among all cultivars. The data show that, in terms of both quality and quantity, the pea cultivars can serve as a significant source of essential amino acids, and bioactive constituents to meet the demand of populations of Pakistan.


3: 295

Species, Salt Level, and Dietary Fibre Effect on Fish Ham

C. Cardoso, R. Mendes and M.L. Nunes

With the purpose of preparing a cooked fish ham from gilthead sea bream, salmon, and hake and containing dietary fibre, three studies were made: gilthead sea bream vs hake batter, reduction of the brine salt content (3, 6, 20 %, w/w), and incorporation of DF: 2 % (w/w) carrageenan, 2 % (w/w) konjac glucomannan, and 2 % (w/w) of each. The incorporation of DF led to a better texture (hardness, cohesiveness, and springiness) and higher sensory scores. Furthermore, much thinner slices were achievable, particularly with the combination of 2 %, w/w, carrageenan and 2 %, w/w, konjac glucomannan.

3: 303

Physical and Micro Structural Changes in Carrot Pomace-Based Extrudates

A. Hussain Dar, N. Kumar and H.K. Sharma

The microstructural, colour and textural changes of carrot pomace based unfried, fried and seasoned extrudates were explored during storage for evaluating the product stability. The extrudates were analyzed to understand the changes in structure, colour and hardness. During storage, remarkable changes were observed in structural orientation of the fibre and cellular components of the unfried, fried and seasoned extruded. The photomicrograph revealed the presence of relatively much compact and dense structural orientation with numerous globules after six months of storage which may have lead to the increase in the hardness of the extrudates and may be the cause for the loss of crispiness of the extrudates. Hardness of the extrudates was increased from 13.78 to 45.80 N for unfried, 8.24 to 19.04 N for fried and 8.62 N to 21.85 N for seasoned extrudates, respectively. The L-value decreased from 66.22 to 62.53, 38.58 to 36.38 and 34.95 to 33.78 for unfried, fried and seasoned extrudates, respectively. The microstructural, colour and textural properties of unfried, fried and seasoned extrudates changed during storage of six month. Minimum change in crispiness and L-values was observed in fried extrudates.


3: 313

Polyphenol Content and Antiradical Activity of “Sarconi” Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Ecotype

A. Romani, P. Vignolini, M.A. Falvino and D. Heimler

The aim of this study was to establish the distribution and content of polyphenols (anthocyans, flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids) in hulls and seeds of Sarconi beans having different colours and shapes. Sarconi beans are protected by the indication of geographic provenance (IGP) denomination and include different ecotypes. The seeds sampled in the study area (Basilicata, Val d’Agri) exhibited different colours from white (Riso Bianco) to dark yellow (Tabacchino), to green (Verdolino) and to red (San Michele Rosso) with shapes changing from small round to large roundovoid. The seeds of the four ecotypes were collected from two farms in order to identify differences that could be caused by environmental conditions. Flavonols of some ecotypes of Sarconi beans have already been described, while the anthocyan composition and content have never been reported. In particular, Tabacchino beans contained the highest amount of both flavonols, such as kaempferol and quercetin derivatives (6.342-6.515 mg/g) and hydrxycinnamic acids (1.136-1.636 mg/g), while only San Michele contained anthocyans, such as cyanidin and pelargonidin derivatives (1.118-3.187 mg/g); Riso Bianco seeds contained only hydroxycinnamic acids (0.975-1.292 mg/g). Kaempferol derivatives were the most representative flavonols in the seed coat of Sarconi beans and in other Italian landraces they have only been found previously in Zolfino beans. This occurrence could distinguish Italian beans from Brazilian, Peruvian, and Mexican beans. The antiradical activity, as indicated in particular by EC50 values, ranged from 2.78 to 16.93 g sample/mg DPPH· (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil radical) for San Michele and Riso Bianco beans, respectively.


3: 322

Volatile Fingerprint and Physico-Mechanical Properties of ‘Muscat Blanc’ Grapes Grown in Mountain Area: A First Evidence of the Influence of Water Regimes

M. Giordano, O. Zecca, S. Belviso, M. Reinotti, V. Gerbi and L. Rolle

The volatile composition of aromatic grape varieties at harvest is a very important criterion in the choice of vinification technique to yield the optimal quality of the final product. The berry mechanical characteristics are important for assessing resistance to fungal attacks and for the estimation of shattering. In this study the effect of irrigation on the volatile fingerprint and the mechanical properties of the Muscat blanc (Vitis vinifera L.) grapes grown in mountain north-west region of Italy was investigated. Three water regimes were compared: standard irrigation, moderate irrigation and drought. In the meteorological conditions of the considered season, a significant increase in the amounts of the most representative free volatile components of the Muscat blanc variety (linalool and geraniol markers), was observed in standard irrigation treatment. Significantly higher amounts of four C13-norisoprenoid bound compounds were observed in the drought treatment with respect to the standard treatment. Furthermore, no influence of irrigation treatment on berry skin hardness and thickness parameters was noted. Therefore, in the considered alpine environment, on aromatic Muscat blanc variety, the optimum irrigation treatment is an important choose to improve the quality of the grapes.


3: 329

An Evaluation of Fish Freshness: A Proposal for a New Index

L. Cianti, C. Lorini, F. Santomauro, P. Bavazzano, A. Perico, A. Colzi and G. Bonacorsi

The purpose of this study is to define a new system for assessing the freshness of marine bony fish based on measurable parameters. 151 fish were analysed to determine the concentrations of total volatile basic nitrogen, trimethylamine N-oxide, trimethylamine and malondialdehyde. The results of the determinations were included in an algorithm to calculate the value of the Freshness Index (FI). The most appropriate threshold value of FI that can distinguish fresh from not fresh fish was 0.33 (sensitivity 95.6%, specificity 73.6%). The results demonstrate the possibility of using the index for the evaluation, at low-cost, of consignments of fresh or presumed fresh fish both in the phase of official control and in self-verification systems.


3: 339

Effect of Harvesting Time and Storage Temperature on the Duration of Balah Stage of ‘Barhi’ Dates

A.K. Alsaed, G.F. Mehyar and A. Arar

‘Barhi’ dates at Balah stage are characteristic with their attractive and pleasant flavor and texture. They are more acceptable by consumers and marketed with high prices at this stage of maturity compared with Rutab and Tamar stages of the same cultivar. The duration of Balah stage of ‘Barhi’ dates is about 4 weeks which is considered very short for successful marketing of ‘Barhi’ dates at this stage. This research work aimed at studying the possibility of prolonging the duration of Balah stage for ‘Barhi’ dates. Four harvesting dates and 3 storage temperatures were used in this study. The sensorial as well as the physico-chemical properties of the fresh and stored date samples were determined at specific intervals. The obtained results showed that the fresh ‘Barhi’ dates at Balah stage contain (on dwb) 2.8-4.2% ash, 20-35% Brix, 61-79% moisture, 0.18-0.20% acidity, 2.8-10.5% tannins, 14.1-49.4% fibre, 2.1-4.9% pectin, 80.6-87% total sugars, whereas the softening rate ranged between 0-5%. The sensory evaluation results revealed that date fruits stored at 0ºC achieved the best results. The best combination of harvesting time and storage temperature was found to be 4th September and 0°C where a four weeks extra time were added to the Balah stage of ‘Barhi’ dates.


3: 345

Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content of Mapo Tangelo

U.G. Spizzirri, D. Restuccia, F. Puoci, M. Curcio, G. Cirilo and N. Pici

The antioxidant properties of Mapo Tangelo fruit and leaves extracts were investigated. The content of health-promoting components (total phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid) were evaluated by spectrophotometric assays. Higher concentrations of total phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid were found in peel samples extracted with boiling water, followed by leaves extracted with boiling ethanol. The radical-scavenging activity of the extracts was evaluated by different in vitro tests (total antioxidant activity, DPPH, ABTS and β-carotene bleaching tests). The trend observed for bioactive compounds was confirmed by antioxidant activity assays and good correlation values were obtained with total phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid.


3: 354

Post-Harvest Quality, Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity in Organic and Conventional Kiwifruit (Actinidia Deliziosa, cv. Hayward)

L. D’Evoli, S. Moscatello, A. Baldicchi , M. Lucarini, J.G. Cruz-Castillo, A. Aguzzi, P. Gabrielli, S. Proietti, A. Battistelli, F. Famiani, V. Böm and G. Lombardi-Boccia

The study provides original data on quality attributes and nutritional profile of organic and conventional kiwifruit grown in Italy (Lazio region). Data on macronutrients (protein, lipid, carbohydrate) total dietary fiber, minerals, trace elements, organic acids (citric, malic, oxalic) and bioactive molecules including ascorbic acid, carotenoids (lutein and β-carotene), tocopherols (α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, γ-tocotrienol) content are reported.Organic orchards displayed a lower yield but higher fruit performances (flesh firmness, dry matter, soluble solids) than conventional ones. Ascorbic acid content was significantly higher in organic kiwifruit (66 mg/100 g) than in conventional one (53 mg/100 g). Both lutein and β-carotene content was higher in organic kiwifruit than in conventional one. No significant differences in tocopherol content between cultivation systems were observed. Antioxidant activity was significantly higher (p <0.001) in organic than in conventional fruit mirroring the trend reported for ascorbic acid.

3: 362

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