Italian Journal of Food Science

 

VOLUME XXV (2013) Nr. 4


PAPERS


Effect of Fluid Whey Incorporation on Quality of Chevon Nuggets

S. Mohapatra, G. Kandeepan, S.K. Mendiratta, B. Soni, B. Kumar, M.R. Vishnuraj and V. Shukla

Utilizing fluid whey to replace ice flakes in chevon nugget formulation was studied and the physicochemical, technological, microbiological and sensory quality of the product was evaluated. Results showed no statistically significant differences in most of the sensory parameters determined. Even 100% replacement of fluid whey did not produce any adverse effect in sensory properties. However, emulsion stability rate was significantly increased with fluid whey addition to the formulation and 100% replacement of fluid whey showed the most satisfactory results. A slight increase in protein, fat content and cooking yield and decrease in pH value was observed with liquid whey addition. Microbiological analysis of the chevon nuggets on the zero day showed a decrease in total plate count and yeast mold count with increasing levels of liquid whey. These results showed that chilled liquid whey can be added to chevon nugget formulations to improve the product quality at minimal cost.


4: 379

Evaluation of Chemical Composition and Nutritional Quality of Buckwheat Groat, Bran and Hull (Fagopyrum esculentum Möench L.)

W. Biel and R. Maciorowski

We analyzed samples of buckwheat groat, bran and hull. Technological processing significantly affected the protein and fat content in buckwheat, and was the highest level in bran (respectively 183.4 g and 39.7 g·kg-1 DM). The examined products also significantly differed in the level of crude fiber and dietary fiber fractions. Total AA did not significantly differ between the varieties and between the analyzed products, and averaged 93 g per 16 g N. Isoleucine was the first limiting amino acid. The high level of EAA was reflected in EAAI. The highest PER1-PER3 was obtained for protein in buckwheat hull (on average from 2.11 to 2.92).


4: 384

Meat Quality in Donkey Foals

P. Polidori and S. Vincenzetti

A study to evaluate quality attributes in muscles Semimembranosus (SM) and Semitendinosus (ST) muscles was performed on 10 entire donkey foals slaughtered at 10 months of age and mean final body weight of 126 kg. Fat content was significantly (P<0.05) higher (1.77%) in SM muscle compared to ST (1.61%); protein, cholesterol and glycogen content were not statistically different between the two muscles examined. Collagen concentration in ST muscle (44.2 μg/mg) was significantly higher (P<0.01) compared to SM muscle (32.1 μg/mg). Polyunsaturated fatty acids were significantly higher (P<0.05) in SM muscle (22.11%) compared to ST muscle (20.61%).


4: 390

Application of Pulsed Electric Field Enrichment of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Cells with Calcium Ions

U. Pankiewicz and J. Jamroz

Cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were treated with PEF to improve accumulation of calcium in the biomass. Under optimized conditions, this is, on 20 min exposure of the 20 h grown culture to PEF of the 5.0 kV/cm and 20 μs pulse width, accumulation of calcium in the yeast biomass reached maximum 2.98 mg/g d.m. It constituted 30% of the total calcium in the medium. That accumulation is significantly correlated against calcium concentration in the medium. Neither multiple exposure of the cultures to PEF nor intermittent supplementation of the cultures with calcium increased the calcium accumulation. The intermittent supplementation of the cultures with calcium reduces the accumulation efficiency by 57%.


4: 394

Effect of Pre-Treatment Conditions on Structure and Mechanical Properties of Freeze-Dried Pumpkin

A. Ciurzyńska, A. Lenart and K.J. Gręda

In this work the effect of blanching, osmotic dehydration, freezing method and time of frozen storage on the structure and mechanical properties of freeze-dried pumpkin was shown. Osmotic dehydration limited shrinkage and porosity of freeze-dried material, made the structure stronger and caused an increase in hardness and the value of compression work, but the time of osmotic pre-treatment did not have significant influence. Blanching caused a statistically insignificant increase in hardness and compression work and a decrease in shrinkage. Quick freezing caused an insignificant increase in shrinkage and porosity. Frozen storage time did not have an influence on the mechanical and physical properties of freeze-dried pumpkin.


4: 403

Physicochemical, Microbiological, Rheological and Sensory Properties of Set-Type Yogurt Produced with Two Different Origins: Wild Lactobacillus Delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus and Streptococcus Thermophilus Strains

O. Yerlikaya, A. Akpinar and S. Kilic

In this study, different origins of yogurt bacteria (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) produced set-type yogurt, and we investigated their effects on yogurt quality. We selected these strains according to their proteolytic activities and their ability to produce lactic acid, aroma compounds, and exopolysaccharides (EPS). Appropriate strains were combined as a starter culture. We used five different combinations and one commercial starter. The pH of all yogurts decreased, but the decrease was relatively low in some samples. In addition, titratable acidity revealed that treatments and storage period had affected the yogurts significantly. Viscosity appeared different in all samples but increased in all during the storage period. The mean values of yogurts’ flavor, texture, and acceptability were different in all yogurt samples, but yogurts produced by the wild starter culture had an especially high sensory score.


4: 412

Film Type and Map on Cv. Himbo Top Raspberry Fruit Quality, Composition and Volatiles

A. Peano, V. Girgenti, A. Palma, E. Fontanella and N.R. Giuggioli

This study evaluates the effects of different MAP methods (active and passive) on the postharvest life of raspberry fruits using different plastic packaging films. In particular the comparison between biodegradable and conventional plastic films represent an important objective since not many studies are available on the effect of biodegradable films used for food packaging. Raspberry fruits were packaged using three different plastic films and were stored with different gas conditions for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The gas concentration values of the boxes were monitored daily with a PBI Dansensor gas analyzer and expressed as percentages. Weight losses, skin color and qualitative and nutraceutical characteristics were monitored during the storage period to identify the best film-atmosphere combination for raspberry shelf life. Fruit volatile components were investigated. The results show that the evolution of the O2 and CO2 concentrations in the packed box was more influenced by the film characteristics rather than by the initial gas concentrations. The best maintenance of qualitative characteristics and the lowest weight decrease over 96 hours was obtained by storing fruits under a biodegradable film.


4: 421

Italian-Type Salami with Propolis as Antioxidant

S. Bernardi, C.S. Favaro-Trindade, M.A. Trindade, J.C.C. Balieiro, A.D. Cavenaghi and C.J. Contreras-Castillo

There is a world trend of replacing synthetic additives with natural ones. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of propolis, both free and microencapsulated, as a natural antioxidant in salami. For this, salamis were added with free propolis, propolis microencapsulated and other with sodium erythorbate (control). Weight loss, colour, pH, Aw, lipid oxidation, microbial spoilage and sensory acceptance were examined. Products containing propolis showed similar results to the control for colour, pH, weight loss and Aw. Propolis prevented the oxidation of salami during storage; however, it led to a lower sensorial acceptance.


4: 433

Table Olive Consumption by Socioeconomic and Demographic Groups of Consumers in Turkey

E.I. Tumer

The objective of this study is to analyze the possible socioeconomic and demographic effects on consumers’ table olive consumptions in Izmir. A questionnaire has been conducted with the participation of 384 consumes by using the face to face interview method in 2012. The binomial Logit was used to analyze data collected. According to the results of the analysis, consumer’s gender and age , the size of the household, the location of olive production and also growing up in the city of Izmir have significant effects on the consumption of table olive. The findings will help table olive producers and marketing organizations to understand the critical factors that affect consumers’ table olive consumption behavior and help them to make improvements accordingly.


4: 441

Microbiological Quality of Leafy Green Vegetables Sold in the Local Market of Saudi Arabia

M. Al-Holy, T. Osaili, S. El-Sayed, E. AlShammari and I. Ashnkyty

Fresh leafy green vegetables (LGV) are frequently linked with outbreaks of foodborne illness in humans worldwide. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence of some common foodborne pathogens and indicator bacteria that are likely to occur in LGV. In this study 105 samples of LGV, namely, lettuce, coriander, leek, dill, rocket leaves, parsley, and green onions were investigated. High total mesophilic count (> 8 log10 cfu/g) was detected in several types of the analyzed LGV. The counts for Enterobacteriaceae ranged from 5.72 to 7.06 log10 cfu/g in lettuce and leek, respectively. High total coliform counts were also detected in the tested vegetables, where counts ranged from 5.86 to 6.59 log10 cfu/g. Pantoea agglomerans was recovered most frequently from the LGV (13% of the samples). E. coli was identified in rocket leaves and green onions. The resistance of the identified bacterial isolates to a set of 20 different antimicrobial agents was tested. Most of the bacterial isolates were sensitive except for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The presence of high total count, Enterobacteriaceae and coliform counts and the presence of E. coli entail implementing effective control measures to minimize risk factors that may be accrued from fresh LGV consumption.


4: 446

Antioxidant Activity and Biochemical Variation Among Juices of Different Genotypes of Sugarcane

S.R. Abbas, S.M. Sabir, S.D. Ahmad, A. Zulfiqar, A. Wajid, A. Hamid, A. Batool and M.R. Abbas

Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) juice is widely consumed by the people of the tropics and subtropics. It has been used to cure jaundice and liver-related disorders in medicine. Its possible mechanism of action was examined in terms of antioxidant activity and phenolic contents. The antioxidant activity was assayed by using the scavenging of a stable 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical at 517 nm. In addition, the phenolic content, reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar and Brix contents were measured to evaluate the biochemical variation. The juice from thirteen important genotypes of sugarcane was included in the study. Among these genotypes S- 2003-CP-43-33, CP-77-400, SPF-213 and HSF-240 showed good antioxidant activities (IC50 values varied from 17.04±0.6 to 21.90±0.45 μg/mL). Cluster analysis showed wide variation between the genotypes based on biochemical assays. HSF-240 and CP-43-33 showed 50 gene-linkage distances in clustering pattern.


4: 453

The Influence of Temperature and Storage Time on Cantaloupe Melons Physicochemical Quality

D. Žnidarčič, H. šircelj and N. Kacjan Maršić

Cantaloupe melons (Cucumis melo L. subsp. melo var. cantalupensins Naudin) cv ‘Chianti’ were evaluated for quality traits during 14 days of storage at three different temperatures i.e., 2°, 10° and 18ºC with 85-95% relative humidity. The weight loss of fruits slightly increased during the stored period studied, as well as insignificant differences between the temperatures. Whereas significant texture was lost more rapidly in the samples stored at 18º and 10ºC than those stored at 2ºC. TSS (total soluble solids) were also affected by storage time and temperature. The TSS content of fruit at 2ºC increased and then remained constant over storage. At higher temperatures and at every stage of storage time TSS increased as storage time increased. The predominant carotenoid in all samples was β-carotene. The carotenoids were increased and then decreased with the time; however, the decrease processes were delayed by low temperature. The alpha form was the predominant tocopherol fraction. The level of tocopherol isomers significantly (α-tocopherol) and gradualy (γ- and δ- tocopherol) increased during the 7 days, but after 1st week of storing for all isomers a significant decrease was measured. High temperature storage at 18ºC in comparison to 10ºC and 2ºC promoted γ- and δ- tocopherol level.


4: 459

Removal of Bitter Compounds from Citrus Byproducts

A. Todaro, R. Palmieri, D. Scalone, G.R.A. Alberio, M. Serafini and G. Spagna

Bitter compounds such as limonoids, which consist of oxygenated triterpenoid compounds, are present in citrus fruits. Removal of limonoids from citrus fruits is of considerable importance for the citrus industry. Researchers have removed limonoids from citrus fruits and citrus byproducts using organic solvents. The objective of this study was to use a simpler method to remove limonoids from citrus byproducts.


4: 465

Freeze Drying of Yoghurt with Candied Chestnut Puree: Survival of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Determination of Physical Properties

Kadriye Ergun, Gulten Tiryaki-Gunduz, Melike Sakin-Yilmazer, S. Nur Dirim and Figen Kaymak-Ertekin

Yoghurts with varying candied chestnut puree contents were freeze dried to produce a novel product: yoghurt powder containing candied chestnut puree. The amount of surviving lactic acid bacteria in the products was determined. The results showed that increasing the percentage of candied chestnut puree resulted in a decrease of moisture content, water activity, ash content, and L* values of the powder. Yoghurt with candied chestnut puree could be satisfactorily freeze dried with a minimum level of 8.93 log cfu/g dry matter survival rates for the lactic acid bacteria.


4: 470

PREVIEW ON VOLUME XXIV No. 4, 2013


4: 476

AUTHOR INDEX


4: 477

CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXV - 2013


4: 480

GUIDE FOR AUTHORS


4: 484

CONTRIBUTORS

4: 487

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No. 74 (2013)


November

CONTENTS


LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES BIOFILMS IN FOOD PROCESSING

P. Di Ciccio - M. Conter - E. Zanardi - S. Ghidini - A. Vergara - D. Paludi - A.R. Festino and A. Ianieri

Contamination of food b y Listeria monocytogenes (L.m) frequently occurs in food processing environments, where cells persist due to their ability to attach to surfaces. L.m is able to attach and colonize environmental surfaces by producing a three-dimensional matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) called biofilm; such structures are dynamic systems. Once established, biofilms can serve as a source of product contamination. Moreover, L.m in the biofilm state shows a reduced susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. The present review focuses on L.m biofilms in food processing environments. In addition, some aspects of biofilm control and eradication are highlighted.


74: 5

LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES IN TRADITIONAL SAUSAGES PRODUCED IN SARDINIA (ITALY)

D. Meloni - F. Piras - A. Mareddu - R. Mazza - D. Nucera and R. Mazzette

Environmental samples, raw materials and fermented sausages produced in Sardinia (Italy) were analysed in order to investigate the prevalence and enumeration of L. monocytogenes. Isolates were identified by single PCR and characterised by multiplex PCR-based serogrouping. The contamination routes of L. monocytogenes in the plants were traced using PFGE. In addition, a quantitative assessment of the in vitro biofilm formation was carried out. Fermented sausages seem to be regularly contaminated with L. monocytogenes: results showed the ability of the pathogen to overcome the hurdles of the manufacturing process and adapt to the processing plant environments, forming biofilms.


74: 18

DEPARTMENTS


RESEARCH

The effect of food structure on satiety - Broader scope may enhance UV screening of navel oranges - Impact of the shape on sensory properties of chocolate pieces - Olive-oil milling leftovers scrutinized in new ARS studies - What effect of polydextrose on satiety and energy intake? - Functional foods based on fruit and vegetable residue flour - French fries oil content: lower with infrared heat


74: 30

FOOD PROCESSING

Radio frequency applications for the food industry: defrosting - Multifunction vacuum plant with rotating coil - Vertical mixers - Cooking ovens with counterpressure - Food processing equipment


74: 36

MEAT PROCESSING

Innovative raw ham production technology - Horizontal slicers - Plates and knives set for sausage production - Automatic press for ham and bacon - Clippers


74: 40

BAKERY AND CONFECTIONERY

Rice and cereal processing - Melters for blocks of fat and butter


74: 44

PACKAGING EQUIPMENT

Process control and efficiency boosts European packaging machinery market - Coffee capsule production - Integrated wrapping systems - Automated handling systems for products and packaging


74: 46

PACKAGING MATERIALS

Are your food labels legal?


74: 50

ANCILLARY EQUIPMENT

Flexible conveyor - Sorting machines - Automatic bag emptying machine with belt- Check-weigher


74: 52

CONSUMER TRENDS

Consumers go nuts for healthy snacks - Alternative bases & upmarket toppings help pizza hold ground - Even more launches of new food and drink containing vitamin K2 - Fruity flavours favoured in new yogurt formulations - Worldly Snacks: Culinary Trend Mapping Report - Why profit margins are trending in the dairy industry? - GMO-free moving forward in new products


74: 56

MARKETING REPORTS

World cocoa market will be in deficit for next two years - China’s dairy industry: review and outlook


74: 66

PACKAGING TRENDS

US demand for meat, poultry and seafood packaging to reach in 2017


74: 70

NEWS AND TECHNOLOGY

New UN food safety and nutrition standards will benefit consumers - Can a vegetarian diet reduce mortality? - Resistant bacteria remain an important issue - Olive oil assays may help assure authenticity - The new App for iPhone developed by Pavan- Private label conference and exhibition in Bologna - UCIMA chooses Cibus Tec to shape Food Pack - Intenational events in Italy


74: 72

ADVERTISER INDEX


74: 80

COMPANY INDEX

74: 80

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VOLUME XXV (2013) Nr. 3


PAPERS


CFD Simulations as a Supporting Tool for Process and Construction Optimization in Food Industry Production Practice:
A Case Study of a Single Truck Smoking Chamber

M.S. Kubiak and M. Jakubowski

This paper presents an overall description of one of many numerical modeling methods (Computational Fluid Dynamics) as a tool supporting the optimization of an existing technological process in relation to changes in the parameters of individual operations, as well as the guidelines for constructional changes in the machines and devices used in these operations. The method is presented on the basis of a case study of basic smoking in a single truck smoking chamber. The modeled problem is the flow of an air and smoke mixture in an electric single truck smoking chamber. Results were obtained in the form of spatial distributions of mixture velocity and the movement tracks of smoke particles. These results enabled an analysis of the uniformity of the mixture flow inside the chamber taking into consideration the spaces where “dead zones” occur.


3: 251

Evaluation of Different Stunning Methods on Aspects of Animal Welfare and Meat Quality of Matrinxã (Brycon cephalus)

S.C. Vargas, P.R.C. Oliveira Filho, M.M. Natori, C.G. Lima and E.M. Macedo Viegas

Three methods of stunning fish (electronarcosis, CO2 narcosis, and thermal shock) were compared to study their influence on welfare and meat quality of matrinxã (Brycon cephalus). Parameters such as water quality and the time to reach clinical indicators of unconsciousness were observed. Rigor mortis index and muscular shrinkage were evaluated 3 and 5 h after stunning and at 1, 4, 7, 12 and 18 days of storage. None of the methods extended shelf-life; however, electronarcosis provided faster clinical indicators of unconsciousness and did not cause loss of meat quality.


3: 255

Employing Artificial Neural Networks and Regression in Analysis on Knowledge about Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) in Slovenia

N. Kunstelj, D. Žnidarčič and B. Ster

This article analyses factors affecting the reputation of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) among people in Slovenia. The inquiry, which included 7 general questions and 19 questions in particular about sweet potato, was completed by 712 respondents. The aim was to find out which factors impact the knowledge about sweet potato, the relations between answers to various questions regarding sweet potato features and willingness of people to know, to buy and to grow it. The methods applied were the Radial basis function neural networks and multiple linear and logistic regressions. It was established that persons with agricultural education are experts and know sweet potato best. Persons from large families are also familiar with it, but to a smaller degree. The answers to 8 questions about sweet potato features were very consistent, since we found out that every answer can be predicted with 98% probability (on the basis of the answers to the other 7 questions). Significant covariates in regression show that the most likely persons to know/buy/ grow sweet potato are the people with agricultural education. Older persons are more interested in curative features of sweet potato, while younger and better educated believe in stronger nutritional values. Female respondents are more likely to grow sweet potato than men. Net income also influences willingness to buy sweet potato, because people living with children are more likely to be willing to attend free lectures about sweet potato.


3: 263

Honey-Based “Água-Mel” Chemical Characterization and Microbiological Quality

M. Graça Miguel, M. Dulce Antunes, Smail Aazza, Joana Duarte and M. Leonor Faleiro

In Mediterranean countries such as Italy and Portugal an ancient practice among beekepers is the production of a honey-based product that is called “água-mel” (Portuguese designation) or “abbamele” (Italian designation) that have not only food applications but also medicinal purposes. However, the characterization of such foodstuff is completely absent in Portugal. In our study the main goal was to provide the general chemical characterization and the microbiological quality of samples of “água-mel”. The chemical characterization showed a great variability of the ash percentage (0.167-0.474); electrical conductivity (407-1067 mS/cm); free acidity (33.2-91.2 meq/kg); lactone acidity (14.60-20.50 meq/kg); total acidity (53.7-122.72 meq/kg); glucose (185.57-258.52 g/kg); fructose (218.49-315.36 g/kg); total polyphenols (1780.0-4963.8 mg/kg); flavonoids (188.8- 1702.4 mg/kg) and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (HMF) (1812.6-8428.9 mg/kg), depending on the beekeeper and production year. The microbiological quality included the counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and moulds, Enterobacteriaceae, sulphite-reducing Clostridium spp. and the presence of Salmonella spp. The results showed that from all “água-mel” samples analyzed only one sample was contaminated with Clostridium spp. and aerobic mesophilic bacteria. Taken together both chemical and microbiological data indicates a safe consumption of “água-mel”.


3: 275

Maize Variants’ Susceptibility to Plodia Interpunctella

L. Limonta, D.P. Locatelli, S. Sangiorgio and G. Consonni

The behavior of the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella on maize genotypes differing in embryo development, both on whole and longitudinally sectioned kernels, was studied. In the test with whole kernels, damage was very low or absent, and only viviparous mutants were significantly attacked. However, 100% damage was observed in all genotypes on longitudinally sectioned kernels. In this test, mutant seeds lacking embryos were less damaged and showed the lowest mean number of adult insects. These results indicate that larval penetration is influenced by the embryo properties and first shows that the employment of genetic variants is a valuable approach to study insect behavior and an opportunity to highlight maize genotypes with characteristics that can minimize quality reduction caused by insect attacks.


3: 283

The Hedonic Price for an Italian Grape Variety

F. Caracciolo, L. Cembalo and E. Pomarici

Consumers face complex choices when buying wine, a highly differentiated product sold at widely varying prices. This paper aims to provide a monetary valuation of some key credence attributes of wine, such as certifications and quality ratings made by expert tasters. The implicit price of DOC-DOCG certification is of extreme importance. It gives access to a collective reputation and enables a premium price to be captured from consumers. With this in mind, hedonic price estimation was performed on a specific Italian grape variety (Aglianico).


3: 289

Compositional Studies of Some Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Seed Cultivars Commonly Consumed in Pakistan

M. Zia-Ul-Haq, S. Ahmad, R. Amarowicz and S. Ercisli

The present study was aimed at evaluating the composition and nutrition of some commonly consumed pea cultivars. The investigated parameters included proximate composition, vitamin contents, antinutritional factors (ANF), fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, amino acid and mineral contents. Variability was observed among investigated cultivars in terms of amino acid and sugar contents. Despite variations among sugar contents, sucrose and raffinose were noted as being present in highest and lowest concentrations, respectively, in all cultivars. The distribution patterns of various amino acids in these cultivars suggested sulphur-containing amino acids as limiting amino acids. Analysis showed almost similar proportions of biochemical constituents among all cultivars. The data show that, in terms of both quality and quantity, the pea cultivars can serve as a significant source of essential amino acids, and bioactive constituents to meet the demand of populations of Pakistan.


3: 295

Species, Salt Level, and Dietary Fibre Effect on Fish Ham

C. Cardoso, R. Mendes and M.L. Nunes

With the purpose of preparing a cooked fish ham from gilthead sea bream, salmon, and hake and containing dietary fibre, three studies were made: gilthead sea bream vs hake batter, reduction of the brine salt content (3, 6, 20 %, w/w), and incorporation of DF: 2 % (w/w) carrageenan, 2 % (w/w) konjac glucomannan, and 2 % (w/w) of each. The incorporation of DF led to a better texture (hardness, cohesiveness, and springiness) and higher sensory scores. Furthermore, much thinner slices were achievable, particularly with the combination of 2 %, w/w, carrageenan and 2 %, w/w, konjac glucomannan.

3: 303

Physical and Micro Structural Changes in Carrot Pomace-Based Extrudates

A. Hussain Dar, N. Kumar and H.K. Sharma

The microstructural, colour and textural changes of carrot pomace based unfried, fried and seasoned extrudates were explored during storage for evaluating the product stability. The extrudates were analyzed to understand the changes in structure, colour and hardness. During storage, remarkable changes were observed in structural orientation of the fibre and cellular components of the unfried, fried and seasoned extruded. The photomicrograph revealed the presence of relatively much compact and dense structural orientation with numerous globules after six months of storage which may have lead to the increase in the hardness of the extrudates and may be the cause for the loss of crispiness of the extrudates. Hardness of the extrudates was increased from 13.78 to 45.80 N for unfried, 8.24 to 19.04 N for fried and 8.62 N to 21.85 N for seasoned extrudates, respectively. The L-value decreased from 66.22 to 62.53, 38.58 to 36.38 and 34.95 to 33.78 for unfried, fried and seasoned extrudates, respectively. The microstructural, colour and textural properties of unfried, fried and seasoned extrudates changed during storage of six month. Minimum change in crispiness and L-values was observed in fried extrudates.


3: 313

Polyphenol Content and Antiradical Activity of “Sarconi” Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Ecotype

A. Romani, P. Vignolini, M.A. Falvino and D. Heimler

The aim of this study was to establish the distribution and content of polyphenols (anthocyans, flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids) in hulls and seeds of Sarconi beans having different colours and shapes. Sarconi beans are protected by the indication of geographic provenance (IGP) denomination and include different ecotypes. The seeds sampled in the study area (Basilicata, Val d’Agri) exhibited different colours from white (Riso Bianco) to dark yellow (Tabacchino), to green (Verdolino) and to red (San Michele Rosso) with shapes changing from small round to large roundovoid. The seeds of the four ecotypes were collected from two farms in order to identify differences that could be caused by environmental conditions. Flavonols of some ecotypes of Sarconi beans have already been described, while the anthocyan composition and content have never been reported. In particular, Tabacchino beans contained the highest amount of both flavonols, such as kaempferol and quercetin derivatives (6.342-6.515 mg/g) and hydrxycinnamic acids (1.136-1.636 mg/g), while only San Michele contained anthocyans, such as cyanidin and pelargonidin derivatives (1.118-3.187 mg/g); Riso Bianco seeds contained only hydroxycinnamic acids (0.975-1.292 mg/g). Kaempferol derivatives were the most representative flavonols in the seed coat of Sarconi beans and in other Italian landraces they have only been found previously in Zolfino beans. This occurrence could distinguish Italian beans from Brazilian, Peruvian, and Mexican beans. The antiradical activity, as indicated in particular by EC50 values, ranged from 2.78 to 16.93 g sample/mg DPPH· (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil radical) for San Michele and Riso Bianco beans, respectively.


3: 322

Volatile Fingerprint and Physico-Mechanical Properties of ‘Muscat Blanc’ Grapes Grown in Mountain Area: A First Evidence of the Influence of Water Regimes

M. Giordano, O. Zecca, S. Belviso, M. Reinotti, V. Gerbi and L. Rolle

The volatile composition of aromatic grape varieties at harvest is a very important criterion in the choice of vinification technique to yield the optimal quality of the final product. The berry mechanical characteristics are important for assessing resistance to fungal attacks and for the estimation of shattering. In this study the effect of irrigation on the volatile fingerprint and the mechanical properties of the Muscat blanc (Vitis vinifera L.) grapes grown in mountain north-west region of Italy was investigated. Three water regimes were compared: standard irrigation, moderate irrigation and drought. In the meteorological conditions of the considered season, a significant increase in the amounts of the most representative free volatile components of the Muscat blanc variety (linalool and geraniol markers), was observed in standard irrigation treatment. Significantly higher amounts of four C13-norisoprenoid bound compounds were observed in the drought treatment with respect to the standard treatment. Furthermore, no influence of irrigation treatment on berry skin hardness and thickness parameters was noted. Therefore, in the considered alpine environment, on aromatic Muscat blanc variety, the optimum irrigation treatment is an important choose to improve the quality of the grapes.


3: 329

An Evaluation of Fish Freshness: A Proposal for a New Index

L. Cianti, C. Lorini, F. Santomauro, P. Bavazzano, A. Perico, A. Colzi and G. Bonacorsi

The purpose of this study is to define a new system for assessing the freshness of marine bony fish based on measurable parameters. 151 fish were analysed to determine the concentrations of total volatile basic nitrogen, trimethylamine N-oxide, trimethylamine and malondialdehyde. The results of the determinations were included in an algorithm to calculate the value of the Freshness Index (FI). The most appropriate threshold value of FI that can distinguish fresh from not fresh fish was 0.33 (sensitivity 95.6%, specificity 73.6%). The results demonstrate the possibility of using the index for the evaluation, at low-cost, of consignments of fresh or presumed fresh fish both in the phase of official control and in self-verification systems.


3: 339

Effect of Harvesting Time and Storage Temperature on the Duration of Balah Stage of ‘Barhi’ Dates

A.K. Alsaed, G.F. Mehyar and A. Arar

‘Barhi’ dates at Balah stage are characteristic with their attractive and pleasant flavor and texture. They are more acceptable by consumers and marketed with high prices at this stage of maturity compared with Rutab and Tamar stages of the same cultivar. The duration of Balah stage of ‘Barhi’ dates is about 4 weeks which is considered very short for successful marketing of ‘Barhi’ dates at this stage. This research work aimed at studying the possibility of prolonging the duration of Balah stage for ‘Barhi’ dates. Four harvesting dates and 3 storage temperatures were used in this study. The sensorial as well as the physico-chemical properties of the fresh and stored date samples were determined at specific intervals. The obtained results showed that the fresh ‘Barhi’ dates at Balah stage contain (on dwb) 2.8-4.2% ash, 20-35% Brix, 61-79% moisture, 0.18-0.20% acidity, 2.8-10.5% tannins, 14.1-49.4% fibre, 2.1-4.9% pectin, 80.6-87% total sugars, whereas the softening rate ranged between 0-5%. The sensory evaluation results revealed that date fruits stored at 0ºC achieved the best results. The best combination of harvesting time and storage temperature was found to be 4th September and 0°C where a four weeks extra time were added to the Balah stage of ‘Barhi’ dates.


3: 345

Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content of Mapo Tangelo

U.G. Spizzirri, D. Restuccia, F. Puoci, M. Curcio, G. Cirilo and N. Pici

The antioxidant properties of Mapo Tangelo fruit and leaves extracts were investigated. The content of health-promoting components (total phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid) were evaluated by spectrophotometric assays. Higher concentrations of total phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid were found in peel samples extracted with boiling water, followed by leaves extracted with boiling ethanol. The radical-scavenging activity of the extracts was evaluated by different in vitro tests (total antioxidant activity, DPPH, ABTS and β-carotene bleaching tests). The trend observed for bioactive compounds was confirmed by antioxidant activity assays and good correlation values were obtained with total phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid.


3: 354

Post-Harvest Quality, Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity in Organic and Conventional Kiwifruit (Actinidia Deliziosa, cv. Hayward)

L. D’Evoli, S. Moscatello, A. Baldicchi , M. Lucarini, J.G. Cruz-Castillo, A. Aguzzi, P. Gabrielli, S. Proietti, A. Battistelli, F. Famiani, V. Böm and G. Lombardi-Boccia

The study provides original data on quality attributes and nutritional profile of organic and conventional kiwifruit grown in Italy (Lazio region). Data on macronutrients (protein, lipid, carbohydrate) total dietary fiber, minerals, trace elements, organic acids (citric, malic, oxalic) and bioactive molecules including ascorbic acid, carotenoids (lutein and β-carotene), tocopherols (α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, γ-tocotrienol) content are reported.Organic orchards displayed a lower yield but higher fruit performances (flesh firmness, dry matter, soluble solids) than conventional ones. Ascorbic acid content was significantly higher in organic kiwifruit (66 mg/100 g) than in conventional one (53 mg/100 g). Both lutein and β-carotene content was higher in organic kiwifruit than in conventional one. No significant differences in tocopherol content between cultivation systems were observed. Antioxidant activity was significantly higher (p <0.001) in organic than in conventional fruit mirroring the trend reported for ascorbic acid.

3: 362

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VOLUME XXV (2013) Nr. 2


OPINION


Health quality and nutritional value of rye bread produced on a small and large scale in Poland

M. Radzyminska, B. Garbowska and D. Jakubowska

This study is a small part of a project aimed at performing comprehensive evaluation of the quality of local raw materials and products in the region of Warmia and Mazury in Poland. This study evaluates selected determinants of the health quality and nutritional value of rye bread in relation to origin (small and large scale production). The analytical procedure included determination of the content of acrylamide, organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls, n-methylcarbamates, ochratoxin A, acidity, moisture, protein, glucose, fat, salt, Cu, Mn, Fe, Zn, Ca, and Mg. The quality of bread produced on a small scale, compared to that produced in large bakeries, differed only in terms of some determinants. Rye bread from local producers contained statistically significantly less (P ≤ 0.05) acrylamide and statistically significantly more copper, manganese and zinc.

 

2: 126

PAPERS


Anthocyanin esterification in Sangiovese grapes

L. Rustioni, M. Rossoni, O. Failla and A. Scienza

The traceability of the origin of a variety using the anthocyanins profile was recently discussed for Sangiovese wines, producing an important market impact. The variability of the anthocyanin profile of Sangiovese was studied over three years in grapes and wines. In the same vineyard, five clones, two bunch exposure conditions and three ripening times were evaluated following a full factorial experimental design. HPLC profiles showed a wide range in variability, significantly affected by environmental and cultural factors. The grapes profile changes obtained in the vineyard were maintained in the wines. Also the relative proportions of the acetic and p-cumaric acids involved in the esterification were significantly affected.

 

2: 133

Effect of technological factors on glycoalkaloids and nitrates content in dehydrated potato

E. Rythel

The influence of technological factors such as blanching and pre-drying temperatures applied to dried diced potato was studied. Used parameters influenced on glycoalkaloids and nitrates content in semi- and ready products. The more fine material, the lower content of glycoalkaloids and nitrates. Blanching temperatures used in the experiment contributed to further losses of glycoalkaloids in semi-products. There were no significant changes in the nitrate content in the dice depending on the applied temperature of blanching. Dice pre-dried at the lowest temperature (120°C) contained about 5% more glycoalkaloids than the dice dried at 140°C and 12% more than dice dried at 160°C. Whereas the higher the temperature during pre-drying, the lower the nitrate content in the final product. The dice dried at the lowest temperature still had 49% of the initial nitrate content found in the raw material, at 140ºC – it was 41% and 160ºC - 33%.

 

2: 142

Influence of chemical composition and structure of strawberry gels on the chosen physical properties of freeze-dried final product

A. Ciurzyñska, A. Lenart and W. Traczyk

This study undertook an assessment of the influence of the modification of composition on selected physical properties of strawberry jellies preserved via lyophilization. Moreover, the study presents an attempt to elaborate the technology of lyophilization-enabled strawberry jelly manufacture based on strawberry powder.

Six strawberry jelly recipes were obtained. Selected features of the final product were regulated by the addition of glucose and/or chokeberry juice concentrate. The jelly made from 7% strawberry powder and 5.2% chokeberry juice concentrate was selected as the product with the best quality features, the most profitable color and the highest rehydration degree.

 

2: 149

Ultrasound application in winemaking: grape maceration and yeast lysis

P. Ferraretto, V. Cacciola, I. Ferran Batlló and E. Celotti

The chemical and mechanical effects of ultrasound (US) are interesting in the food industry and this work attempts to study new applications on grapes as the raw material and then in the vinification process.

Phenolic compounds extracted from grapes by means of disruption of the cell wall due to pressure alternance and cavitation were studied. The tests carried out showed an improvement in the extraction of polyphenolic substances, with a reduction in the duration of classic maceration.

Also the lytic effect of the US on yeast cell structures, in order to accelerate the process of ageing over lees was evaluated, with the liberation of different fractions in the wine.


2: 160

Antioxidative peptides derived from denatured egg white protein

A. Zambrowicz, M. Pokora, E. Eckert, J. Chrzanowska, M. Szołtysik, A. Dąbrowska and T. Trziszka

The antioxidant activity of denaturated egg white protein preparation (EP) was evaluated by enzymatic hydrolysis. The EP treated with digestive and microbial proteases resulted in different degradation products confirmed by degree of hydrolysis (DH) and free amino groups concentration (FAG) measurement. The highest free radical scavenging activity reached 0.21 μmol troloxeq/mg and was exhibited by tryptic hydrolysate. EP hydrolysates showed significant, enzyme dependent ferric reducing activity. The highest chelating activity was observed for protein preparations hydrolyzed with neutrase (397.0 μg Fe2+/mg). Antioxidative peptide fractions were isolated from tryptic hydrolysate by reserved phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Among the obtained fractions, we identified: ISQAVHAHAEINEAGR, SVL, QL and AP, KVR antioxidative peptides corresponded to ovalbumin and ovotransferrin fragments, respectively.

 

2: 169

Preliminary characterization of a bacteriocin-like substance produced by a Bacillus subtilis isolated from Argentinean vegetable food

M.F. Fangio and R. Fritz

Bacillus spp. produces a large number of antimicrobial peptides and includes a variety of species of industrial importance. The aim of this study was to characterize the antimicrobial activity associated with a Bacillus subtilis strain. The activity of the crude bacteriocin-like substance (CBLS) was dependent on the components of the culture media and was detected in the exponential phase of growth. The CBLS was stable at a variable pH range and at 100°C, but it was inactivated by sterilization conditions. It was also stable to storage at refrigeration and freezing temperatures for a considerable time. The mode of action of the antimicrobial activity was bacteriostatic and the effect on the cell membrane was determinated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.

 

2: 181

 

Quality of a bread containing Potentilla anserina L. cultivated in China

Ying Ji, Jie Gang and Wenzhong Hu

The Potentilla anserina L. is a traditional Chinese functional food. The objective of this study was to exploit the use of this nutrient-rich food in bread by replacing wheat flour at 1-9% level. Breads prepared with P. anserina were analyzed for dough rheology properties, loaf volume, crumb texture, micro-structural and selected sensory attributes. Dough rheological properties were investigated using farinograph. Upon addition of P. anserina, significant increase in water absorption, development time and stability, and decrease in the mixing tolerance index was recorded.

Loaf volumes decreased significantly from 5.32 to 3.85 cm3/g as the P. anserine supplementation increased from 0 to 9%. Hardness and total phenolic contents significantly increased with the addition of P. anserina powder. The microstructure of the breads was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The addition of P. anserina to wheat flour distinctly destroyed gluten matrix in the SEM images and produced a continuous sheet of gelatinized starch. Sensory evaluations revealed that P. anserina can be added to flour at the level of 5%, as did not deteriorate the bread sensory evaluation.
The acceptable quality bread could be made with up to 5% P. anserina, as did not deteriorate the bread sensory evaluation. Therefore, the addition of P. anserina could be an effective way to produce functional wheat flour bread.
As the role of diet in the prevention of non-communicable diseases has become more evident, there is a growing demand for a new generation of healthier food products. Since limited references are published in the area of P. anserina enriched breads, studies on the development of new products with acceptable physico-chemical characteristics are essential for exploiting value-added uses of P. anserina.


 

2: 189

Modification of the rheological behaviour of sodium alginate by chitosan and multivalent electrolytes

Basim Abu-Jdayil and Deeb Abu Fara

The rheological behaviour of sodium alginate/chitosan blends was examined at several mixture ratios. While both polymers exhibited nearly the same viscosity at low concentrations (1.0 and 2.0 w%), chitosan solutions had higher viscosity and greater deviation from Newtonian behaviour at high solution concentrations (3.0-5.0 w%). The viscosity of alginate/chitosan mixtures was substantially increased. Blends containing predominantly one component were of higher viscosity than blends with approximately equal proportions of both polymers. The viscosity of alginate solutions was strongly affected by the addition of electrolytes, with BaCl2 exerting the greatest effect on the alginate viscosity and shear thinning behaviour.

 

2: 196

Environmental assessment of the citrus fruit production in Sicily using LCA

A. Lo Giudice, C. Mbohwa, M.T. Clasadonte and C. Ingrao

 

Citrus production is one of the most important sectors of Sicilian agriculture. In particular, Sicilian orange production is of the best quality, producing mainly pigmented or blood oranges (cv Tarocco, Moro, and Sanguinello). No other region in the Mediterranean area or on the American Continent produces, on a large scale, blood oranges. The Sicilian blood oranges have some special flavours and organoleptic and functional characteristics. The aim of this paper is to quantify the total environmental impacts of the life cycle of Tarocco oranges – integrated production. The study was conducted in accordance with the ISO standards 14040:2006 and 14044:2006. The analysis of the input and output materials and energy flows indicates that the production phase has the most environmental impacts, causing almost half of the total damage. In terms of the substances having the most environmental impacts, the study shows that: the emission to air of Nitrogen oxides, particulates, Sulphur dioxide and carbon dioxide; the emission into soil of zinc; and the consumption of resources such as crude oil, uranium and natural gas have the most impacts.
These results enable us to propose different ways to reduce the impact of the production of the oranges on the environment.

 

2: 202

Effect of UV-C light in the preservation of raw fermented beverages

M. Borcakli, J. Lucas, L. Caputo, T. Ozturk, F. Baruzzi, V. Fusco, G.M. Quero, L. Quintieri and M. Houghton

The aim of this work was to check the efficacy of an annular ultraviolet reactor for stabilizing the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), the main components of the microbiota of three raw fermented beverages, Boza, Ayran and Matsoni during cold storage. The ultraviolet (UV) dose of 260 mJ cm-2 caused a reduction of 2.6 and 1 log CFU mL-1 in the LAB loads of Boza and Ayran samples, respectively, whereas multiple UV treatments were required for Matsoni; they caused the decrease of 3 log CFU mL-1 in LAB counts. Twenty-two bacterial strains, belonging to 11 species, were identified in the natural microflora of the three beverages before and after the UV treatments.
Only a minimal post-acidification process was registered up to day 30 in all the three beverages. This ultraviolet device is at disposal of beverage manufacturers, who could apply it for producing microbially-stable drinks with an extended shelf-life.

 

2: 213

Different stabilization treatments of rice bran added to wheat flour determine different properties in partially baked wheat bread

J. Quilez, M. Zator, J. Salas-Salvado and L. Alvarez

In the present study, wheat flour was replaced by 3, 6 and 9% of rice bran (RB) previously exposed to two types of heat treatment: extrusion (EXT) and steam cooking (STC). The aim was to investigate how RB affected the properties of wheat-flour dough and partially baked wheat bread, as a final product. The results of the study indicate that neither of the RB treatments had a negative influence on the rheological characteristics of the dough, but that its fermentation capacity and gas retention improved, especially in case of EXT-RB, which was exposed to more intensive heat treatment. In the final bread product, there was also a positive increase in the specific total volume for the EXT-RB bread, and a decrease for the STC-RB bread. Nevertheless, sensory analysis showed that the score for the RB-enriched bread decreased when RB content increased.
We concluded that low concentrations of RB exposed to a more intensive heat stabilization process improves several rheological properties of the dough and the physical properties of the partially wheat bread.

 

2: 222

Prediction of the major fatty acids in the backfat from in- and outdoor Iberian pigs at slaughter

A. Daza, M.A. Latorre and C.J. López-Bote

The objective was to predict the proportion of the major fatty acids (FA; C16:0, C18:0, C18:1n-9 and C18:2n-6) at slaughter (approximately 150 kg of body weight, BW) from fat samples taken at the beginning (100 kg BW) of the finishing period in Iberian pigs under indoor (eating feedstuffs) and outdoor (eating acorns and grass) conditions. For each production system, different linear regression equations were found between the FA percentages at the beginning of the finishing phase and the variation of the FA proportions with respect to the BW gain during that period. It might be very useful for pig producers.

 

2: 229

SHORT COMMUNICATIONS


Mineral content of a moss tea for hypertension

B. Pejin, D. Belic, G. Vuckovic, Y. Kien-Thai and B. Stanimirovic

The content of sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, selenium, phosphorus, nitrite and nitrate in the moss Rhodobryum ontariense and its tea was investigated for medicinal reason. The aim of this study was preliminary estimation of R. ontariense minerals’ contribution to the treatment of hypertension, claimed for the moss tea by Traditional Chinese Medicine. Majority of cations were determined by EPA methods, while phosphorus was determined with an appropriate ISO method. The anions nitrite and nitrate were determined by ion chromatography. Potassium was the most abundant mineral in the investigated tea (5895.20 ± 1.22 mg/kg) and might be speculated as one of its beneficial ingredients for the treatment of elevated blood pressure conditions.

 

2: 235

First data on the antimicrobial activity of Yucca filamentosa L. bark extracts

M. Bononi, G. Guglielmi, P. Rocchi and F. Tateo

The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of two Yucca filamentosa L. extracts produced by hydro-alcoholic extraction under different operational conditions. The extracts were concentrated and de-alcoholised, and were added to media to test their effects on target microorganisms. Both extracts displayed equivalent specific growth inhibitory activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae. No other antimicrobial activity was found. This anti-fermentative activity
may open the doors to new possibilities for using Yucca filamentosa L. extracts in the food industry. These findings are of particular interest, since yucca extracts are already classified as being generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

 

2: 238

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VOLUME XXV (2013) Nr. 1


PAPERS


ANALYSIS OF THE COLLABORATION BETWEEN THE US AND THE EU IN VITICULTURE AND OENOLOGY

R. Aleixandre-Benavent, J.L. Aleixandre Tudò, G. Gonzàlez Alcaide and J.L. Aleixandre

The network of scientific collaboration in viticulture and oenology between the United States and the European Union was studied for the period 1991-2010. A total of 498 articles were published collaboratively during this time. The most collaborative institutions in the US were the University of California Davis and Cornell University (New York), and the most collaborative institutions in the EU were Institut Nationale de la Recherche Agronomique (France), the Italian universities of Milan, Bologna and Udine, and the Spanish University of Barcelona. We note a considerable increase in collaboration in recent years, with the University of California Davis situated in a central position in the network.


1: 3

FATE OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES DURING PRODUCTION AND STORAGE OF ARTISAN WATER BUFFALO MOZZARELLA CHEESE

A. Serraino, G. Finazzi, G. Marchetti, P. Daminelli, R. Riu, F. Giacometti, M.N. Losio and R. Rosmini

The study aim was to assess the behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes during the production and shelf life of artisan water buffalo mozzarella cheese (WBMC) under different storage conditions. Raw milk was deliberately contaminated by L. monocytogenes and the evolution of L. monocytogenes count during production and shelf life was monitored. In traditional WBMC production technology L. monocytogenes can multiply in the curd during ripening, but its growth rate expressed in log CFU/g/h is lower than the growth rate reported by theoretical predictions. Stretching proved to be a process with good repeatability and able to reduce L. monocytogenes contamination by about 2 Log CFU/g. The intrinsic characteristics of traditional WBMC proved to be able to obstacolate the growth of L. monocytogenes during storage even in the case of severe thermal abuse.


1: 16

EVALUATION OF A SENSORY SCORECARD FOR GRATED PARMIGIANO-REGGIANO CHEESE

M. Zannoni and E.A. Hunter

The Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese is sold more and more as grated cheese and in 2002 the official certification body of Parmigiano-Reggiano added the sensory analysis to its array of analytical tools. The scorecard is quantitative-descriptive with 21 descriptors. The scorecard has also 4 qualitative evaluation (appearance, smell, texture, and taste) for the compliance with the regulations.

The scorecard was evaluated tasting twice 24 samples of grated Parmigiano-Reggiano. Analysis of variance showed that all the descriptors discriminate well among the samples. The results measured with GPA showed a good agreement between assessors for every modality and only some problems for the “odour”.


1: 23

INVESTIGATION OF CHEESE-MAKING FACTORS EFFECT ON RIPENING OF A SEMI-HARD CHEESE FOR PRODUCT QUALITY ENHANCEMENT

V. Gianotti, E. Robotti, D. Pattono, M. Benzi and E. Marengo

The work is devoted to understand how cheese making factors can influence the quality of cheese along ripening. The study is focused on a semi-hard cheese (Toma). Three parameters (type of milk, of curd and of starter bacteria) were studied by a full factorial experimental design, providing a set of eight cheese samples characterised, after one and two months of ripening respectively, by compositional parameters and the content of biogenic amines. Principal Component Analysis and the regression models built for one and two months relating cheese making factors to quality parameters, allowed to point out important relationships existing between cheese making conditions, ripening time and quality and led to suggest best practices in the cheese making procedure of Toma cheese, according to the improvement in both food safety and quality. The approach is intended as a guideline for product optimization taking into account the technological features of the product, food safety issues and the receipt constraints.


1: 35

EFFECT OF STARCHY COATING FILMS ON THE REDUCTION OF FAT UPTAKE IN DEEP-FAT FRIED POTATO PELLET CHIPS

Malak M. Angor, Radwan Ajo, Walid Al-Rousan and Basem Al-Abdullah

The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of starch and bread crumbs as coating films at different levels (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5%) on fat reduction and product quality in deep fried potato pellet chips. The results obtained have shown that all coated samples increased fat reduction percent at all levels of starch and bread crumbs ranged from 12.89 to 44.37% and from 14.98 to 27.15%, respectively. The most effective level of starch was 4% for fat reduction, while the best level of bread crumbs was 3%. There were no significant (P > 0.05) differences between all samples in specific volume for fried potato pellet chips. The sensory attributes were improved as a result of using the coating materials at different levels and this is may be attributed to the reduction of fat absorption.


1: 45

QUALITY AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF BREAD FORTIFIED WITH FLAXSEED

R. Meral and I. Sait Dogan

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of flaxseed on the rheological and breadmaking properties and antioxidant activity of bread. Wheat flour was replaced with flaxseed at the level of 2, 4, and 8%. The water absorption, dough development time, stability and mixing tolerance index of the dough did not significantly change with the addition of flaxseed. The test baking results showed that the addition of %2 flaxseed yielded the highest loaf volume. The incorporation of flaxseed increased the antioxidant properties of the bread when compared to the control bread.


1: 51

POSTHARVEST QUALITY OF ‘HACHIYA’ ASTRINGENT PERSIMMONS (DIOSPYROS KAKI L.) AS AFFECTED BY HOT WATER TREATMENT AND MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING

M.H. Ozer, B. Akbudak and I. Altioglu

This study was conducted with the aim of determining the effects of hot water and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on some quality changes in the astringent persimmon cv ‘Hachiya’. The harvested fruits were immersed in 48ÅãC water for 10 minutes, and different thickness polyethylene plastic packaging materials were used for the MAP. Treated and untreated fruits were stored at 0°±1°C and 90±5% relative humidity for 90 days. After the storage period, they were kept at 20°±1°C and 60±5% RH for 7 days to determine their shelf life. The HW+50 μ PE treatment was better compared with the other treatments.


1: 57

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF PROBIOTIC YOGHURT FORTIFIED WITH MILK PROTEIN BASED INGREDIENTS

G. Unal, S.N. El, A.S. Akalin and N. Dinkci

The effect of the fortification with sodium calcium caseinate (SCC) and whey protein concentrate (WPC) on antioxidant activity of probiotic yoghurt, containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12, was investigated. Probiotic yoghurt fortified with WPC had a higher DPPH. (2,2,-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging activity when compared to that fortified with SCC. In Fe2+ chelating activity method, probiotic yoghurts fortified with SCC and a blend of SCC-WPC showed greatest chelating activity by 30 and 60 min. There were no significant differences in the H2 O2 scavenging activity among samples except control yoghurt, which showed the lowest activity, at a concentration of 0.2 g/mL.


1: 63

CRUDE FIBRE, WATER EXTRACTS, TOTAL ASH, CAFFEINE AND MOISTURE CONTENTS AS DIAGNOSTIC FACTORS IN EVALUATING GREEN TEA QUALITY

S.O. Aroyeun

This experiment was carried out to diagnose the qualities of green tea from Nigeria using some quality markers like crude fibre, water extracts, total ash, caffeine and moisture contents respectively. Green Tea was processed from seven different tea clones from Mambilla Highland located on 1840m above mean sea level. The clonal materials used were processed into green tea using Chinese methods viz: Plucking, Fixing (Pan firing), Rolling and Drying. The green tea produced were analyzed for moisture contents, (MC); Crude Fibre, (CF).; Water Extract, (WE).; Total Ash, (TA).; Water Soluble Ash, (WSA).; Alkaline Insoluble Ash, (ALIA) and Acid Insoluble Ash, (AIA). The quality of the green tea produced was compared to the recommended ISO standard for Tea. Our findings showed that there were significant differences (p<0.05) in the chemical components studied as a result of clonal variations which made the quality characteristics of the green tea to vary accordingly. The WE, of all the green tea examined except sample made from clone 236 were within values recommended for good quality green tea as speculated by ISO 3720, % MC was between 4.11-12.5% with average value being 10.2%. The High MC recorded was due to the high humidity of the processing environment where sunlight was inadequate The percentage CF ranged between 4.37-20.8%, the ALIA, 0.90-1.30, TA, 4.2-6.5%, WSA, 50-67% and WE 21.7- 43.6% and the caffeine contents were within 1.29-2.56%. In conclusion, quality of green tea produced in Nigeria has comparable quality characteristics with other tea producing countries of the world and conformed to international standard for green tea.


1: 70

THE EFFECTS OF TOBACCO SMOKE EXPOSURE ON CAFFEINE METABOLISM

A. Grela, M. Kulza, W. Piekoszewski, M. Senczuk-Przybylowska, E. Gomołka and E. Florek

Caffeine and nicotine are some of the most often self-administered substances worldwide. Very often they are taken simultaneously and it seems that this fact is correlated with the amount of caffeine and nicotine administered. The aim of this study is to determine, whether tobacco smoke influences the metabolism of caffeine. The secondary task is to establish whether caffeine has an effect on elimination of cotinine, nicotine’s main metabolite. The results showed that tobacco smoke influences the metabolism of caffeine by accelerating its elimination, by the means of induced CYP1A2 activity. As far as cotinine is concerned, no influence of caffeine on its elimination was observed.


1: 76

FILLET FATTY ACID COMPOSITION, ESTIMATED INDEXES OF LIPID METABOLISM AND OXIDATIVE STATUS OF WILD AND FARMED BROWN TROUT (SALMO TRUTTA L.)

A. Dal Bosco, C. Mugnai, V. Roscini and C. Castellini

The aim of the present study was to compare the fillet fatty acid composition and the oxidative stability of wild and cultivated brown trout (Salmo trutta L.). The study was carried out in Valnerina (Perugia, Italy), where 20 two-year-old farmed brown trout (250 ± 15 g) were utilized; another 20 trout were chosen from a sample caught during the same period from the Nera River (Perugia, Italy) based on their weight (± 10% of weight of farmed ones). The fatty acid profile, fatty acid index and oxidative stability of the fish fillets were assessed. The farmed trout had a significantly higher fat (3.16 vs 2.80%, P<0.05) and energy content than the wild ones, whereas no significant differences were observed with respect to protein and moisture. The linoleic acid content was higher than the linolenic content in farmed trout, while in the wild fish, the inverse situation was observed. The docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid contents in farmed trout were higher than those in wild trout. The wild fish showed higher thioesterase and ∆9 -desaturase (18) and lower ∆5 - ∆6 -desaturase activity. Regarding oxidative stability, the wild fish showed a significantly higher development of oxidative processes associated with a lower peroxidability index.


1: 83

CHARACTERIZATION AND TRIALS OF A JERTE VALLEY CHERRY PRODUCT AS A NATURAL ANTIOXIDANT-ENRICHED SUPPLEMENT

M. Garrido, D. Gonzàlez-G.mez, M. Lozano, C. Barriga, S.D. Paredes and A.B. Rodr’guez

As a food, the cherry fruit is nutrient dense, with a relatively low caloric content and major amounts of important phytochemicals. The nutritional and functional properties of a Jerte Valley (Càceres, Extremadura, Spain) cherry product were characterized with the aim of assessing its potential use in improving the antioxidant status in humans. The results showed the product to have high levels not only of nutritional compounds but also of bioactive compounds. In a subsequent placebo-controlled trial with human volunteers, the ingestion of this product improved their antioxidant status. This cherry-based product may therefore reliably be categorized as a natural antioxidant-enriched supplement.


1: 90

GOVERNANCE MECHANISMS IN FOOD COMMUNITY NETWORKS

S. Pascucci, A. Lombardi, L. Cembalo and D. Dentoni

This paper discusses the concept of the food community network (FCN) and how consumers and farmers organize credence food transactions. The FCN is based on pooling specific resources and using membership-based contracts to assign decision and property rights. It implies an organization based on a combination of several democratic and communitarian elements, with few market-like and bureaucratic elements. By applying arguments from new institutional economics and organizational science, case studies on community-supported agriculture reported elsewhere were used to describe how FCN governance works. The results indicate a great variety of FCN organizational forms.


1: 98

SHORT COMMUNICATION


CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND SELECTED PARAMETERS OF TECHNOLOGICAL SUITABILITY OF CAPRINE MILK PRODUCED IN ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL FARMS

J. Barłowska, Z. Litwi.czuk, A. Wolanciuk and T. Szmatoła

Despite the lower productivity (approximately 0.2 kg daily), goats maintained on an organic farm vs a conventional farm produced milk of a more favorable chemical composition while benefiting from parameters of technological suitability. The production season associated with the lactation stage had a significant influence on milk yield, its basic chemical composition, acidity, heat resistance and cytological quality.


1: 105

SURVEY


SURVEY OF 11 TRACE ELEMENTS OF TOXIC AND NUTRITIONAL SIGNIFICANCE IN CHINESE RICE

L.L. Yan, Y.M. He, Q.Q. Fan, J. Hu and Y. Zhou

11 trace elements (Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Se, Cd, Pb, Sn, Hg) of 21 different kinds of rice samples from main production regions in China were analyzed by ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry). The recoveries were in the range of 80.0-113.7%. The detection limits ranged from 0.010 to 1.904 ng g-1. The results revealed that the concentrations of Hg of 4 rice samples, Pb of 3, Cd of 2 and Cr of 1, exceeded the Chinese permitted levels in foods. And the estimated daily intake was 28.1-46.8 μg for As and 9.4-15.6 μg for Se. This study demonstrates that the potential risk to people’s health which is attributed to the daily consumption of these rice samples is probably being existing.


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PREVIEW ON VOLUME XXIV No. 2, 2013


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GUIDE FOR AUTHORS


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CONTRIBUTORS


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